Yvonne L. Munn Center for Nursing Research

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Research for Review

Monthly Update - 2021

Below is a listing of research articles and abstracts that may be useful as you care for patients, their families and yourself. The abstracts below are printed or adapted from the original articles published. They are to be used by nurses and staff for educational purposes only. They are not to be not to be reproduced or sold without the expressed permission of the Authors.

February 2021
Ludvigsson JF, Engerström L, Nordenhäll C, Larsson E. Open Schools, Covid-19, and Child and Teacher Morbidity in Sweden. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021 Jan 6.

Summary: In mid-March 2020, many countries decided to close schools in an attempt to limit the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Sweden was one of the few countries that decided to keep preschools (generally caring for children 1 to 6 years of age) and schools (with children 7 to 16 years of age) open. This article presents data from Sweden on Covid-19 among children 1 to 16 years of age and their teachers. Data on severe Covid-19, as defined by intensive care unit (ICU) admission, were prospectively recorded in the nationwide Swedish intensive care registry. Included were all children who were admitted to an ICU between March 1 and June 30, 2020 (school ended around June 10) with laboratory-verified or clinically verified Covid-19, including patients who were admitted for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Data on teachers were obtained from the Public Health Agency of Sweden. From March through June 2020, a total of 15 children with Covid-19 (including those with MIS-C) were admitted to an ICU (0.77 per 100,000 children in this age group), 4 of whom were 1 to 6 years of age (0.54 per 100,000) and 11 of whom were 7 to 16 years of age (0.90 per 100,000). Four of the children had an underlying chronic coexisting condition (cancer in 2, chronic kidney disease in 1, and hematologic disease in 1). No child with Covid-19 died. Data from the Public Health Agency of Sweden showed that fewer than 10 preschool teachers and 20 schoolteachers in Sweden received intensive care for Covid-19 up until June 30, 2020 (20 per 103,596 schoolteachers, which is equal to 19 per 100,000). As compared with other occupations (excluding health care workers), this corresponded to sex- and age-adjusted relative risks of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 2.49) among preschool teachers and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.68) among schoolteachers.

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Gilliam, W. S., Malik, A. A., Shafiq, M., Klotz, M., Reyes, C., Humphries, J. E., ... & Omer, S. B. (2021). COVID-19 transmission in US child care programs. Pediatrics, 147(1).

Summary: Central to the debate over school and child care reopening is whether children are efficient coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmitters and are likely to increase community spread when programs reopen. We compared COVID-19 outcomes in child care providers who continued to provide direct in-person child care during the first 3 months of the US COVID-19 pandemic with outcomes in those who did not. Data were obtained from US child care providers (N = 57?335) reporting whether they had ever tested positive or been hospitalized for COVID-19 (n = 427 cases) along with their degree of exposure to child care. Background transmission rates were controlled statistically, and other demographic, programmatic, and community variables were explored as potential confounders. Logistic regression analysis was used in both unmatched and propensity score–matched case-control analyses. No association was found between exposure to child care and COVID-19 in both unmatched (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–1.38) and matched (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.73–1.21) analyses. In matched analysis, being a home-based provider (as opposed to a center-based provider) was associated with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.14–2.23) but revealed no interaction with exposure. Within the context of considerable infection mitigation efforts in US child care programs, exposure to child care during the early months of the US pandemic was not associated with an elevated risk for COVID-19 transmission to providers. These findings must be interpreted only within the context of background transmission rates and the considerable infection mitigation efforts implemented in child care programs.

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Bayham, J., & Fenichel, E. P. (2020). Impact of school closures for COVID-19 on the US health-care workforce and net mortality: a modelling study. The Lancet Public Health, 5(5), e271-e278.

Summary: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is leading to social (physical) distancing policies worldwide, including in the USA. Some of the first actions taken by governments are the closing of schools. The evidence that mandatory school closures reduce the number of cases and, ultimately, mortality comes from experience with influenza or from models that do not include the effect of school closure on the health-care labour force. The potential benefits from school closures need to be weighed against costs of health-care worker absenteeism associated with additional child-care obligations. In this study, we aimed to measure child-care obligations for US health-care workers arising from school closures when these are used as a social distancing measure. We then assessed how important the contribution of health-care workers would have to be in reducing mortality for their absenteeism due to child-care obligations to undo the benefits of school closures in reducing the number of cases. For this modelling analysis, we used data from the monthly releases of the US Current Population Survey to characterise the family structure and probable within-household child-care options of US health-care workers. We accounted for the occupation within the health-care sector, state, and household structure to identify the segments of the health-care workforce that are most exposed to child-care obligations from school closures. We used these estimates to identify the critical level at which the importance of health-care labour supply in increasing the survival probability of a patient with COVID-19 would undo the benefits of school closures and ultimately increase cumulative mortality. Between January, 2018, and January, 2020, the US Current Population Survey included information on more than 3·1 million individuals across 1·3 million households. We found that the US health-care sector has some of the highest child-care obligations in the USA, with 28·8% (95% CI 28·5–29·1) of the health-care workforce needing to provide care for children aged 3–12 years. Assuming non-working adults or a sibling aged 13 years or older can provide child care, 15·0% (14·8–15·2) of the health-care workforce would still be in need of child care during a school closure. We observed substantial variation within the health-care system. We estimated that, combined with reasonable parameters for COVID-19 such as a 15·0% case reduction from school closings and 2·0% baseline mortality rate, a 15·0% decrease in the health-care labour force would need to decrease the survival probability per percent health-care worker lost by 17·6% for a school closure to increase cumulative mortality. Our model estimates that if the infection mortality rate of COVID-19 increases from 2·00% to 2·35% when the health-care workforce declines by 15·0%, school closures could lead to a greater number of deaths than they prevent. School closures come with many trade-offs and can create unintended child-care obligations. Our results suggest that the potential contagion prevention from school closures needs to be carefully weighted with the potential loss of health-care workers from the standpoint of reducing cumulative mortality due to COVID-19, in the absence of mitigating measures.

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March 2021
Jaffe, D. H., Lee, L., Huynh, S., & Haskell, T. P. (2020). Health Inequalities in the Use of Telehealth in the United States in the Lens of COVID-19. Population health management, 23(5), 368-377.

Summary: The use of remote health care services, or telehealth, is a promising solution for providing health care to those unable to access care in person easily and thus helping to reduce health inequalities. The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting stay-at-home orders in the United States have created an optimal situation for the use of telehealth services for non-life-threatening health care use. A retrospective cohort study was performed using Kantar’s Claritis database, which links insurance claims encounters (Komodo Health) with patient-reported data (Kantar Health, National Health & Wellness Survey). Logistic regression models (odds ratios [OR], 95% confidence intervals [CI]) examined predictors of telehealth versus in-person encounters. Adults ages ‡18 years eligible for payer-complete health care encounters in both March 2019 and March 2020 were identified (n = 35,376). Telehealth use increased from 0.2% in 2019 to 1.9% in 2020. In adjusted models of respondents with ‡1 health care encounter (n = 11,614), age, marital status, geographic residence (region; urban/rural), and presence of anxiety or depression were significant predictors of telehealth compared with in-person use in March 2020. For example, adults 45–46 years versus 18–44 years were less likely to use telehealth (OR 0.684, 95% CI: 0.561–0.834), and respondents living in urban versus rural areas were more likely to use telehealth (OR 1.543, 95% CI: 1.153–2.067). Substantial increases in telehealth use were observed during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States; however, disparities existed. These inequalities represent the baseline landscape that population health management must monitor and address during this pandemic.

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Chunara, R., Zhao, Y., Chen, J., Lawrence, K., Testa, P. A., Nov, O., & Mann, D. M. (2021). Telemedicine and healthcare disparities: a cohort study in a large healthcare system in New York City during COVID-19. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 28(1), 33-41.

Summary: Through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine became a necessary entry point into the process of diagnosis, triage, and treatment. Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare have been well documented in COVID-19 with respect to risk of infection and in-hospital outcomes once admitted, and here we assess disparities in those who access healthcare via telemedicine for COVID-19. Electronic health record data of patients at New York University Langone Health between March 19th and April 30, 2020 were used to conduct descriptive and multilevel regression analyses with respect to visit type (telemedicine or in-person), suspected COVID diagnosis, and COVID test results. Controlling for individual and community-level attributes, Black patients had 0.6 times the adjusted odds (95% CI: 0.58–0.63) of accessing care through telemedicine compared to white patients, though they are increasingly accessing telemedicine for urgent care, driven by a younger and female population. COVID diagnoses were significantly more likely for Black versus white telemedicine patients.

There are disparities for Black patients accessing telemedicine, however increased uptake by young, female Black patients. Mean income and decreased mean household size of a zip code were also significantly related to telemedicine use. Telemedicine access disparities reflect those in in-person healthcare access. Roots of disparate use are complex and reflect individual, community, and structural factors, including their intersection—many of which are due to systemic racism. Evidence regarding disparities that manifest through telemedicine can be used to inform tool design and systemic efforts to promote digital health equity.

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Pierce, R. P., & Stevermer, J. J. (2020). Disparities in use of telehealth at the onset of the COVID-19 public health emergency. Journal of telemedicine and telecare, 1357633X20963893.

Summary: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in an unprecedented expansion in telehealth, but little is known about differential use of telehealth according to demographics, rurality, or insurance status. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 7742 family medicine encounters at a single USA institution in the initial month of the COVID-19 public health emergency (PHE). We compared the demographics of those using telehealth during the PHE to those with face-to-face visits during the same time period; we also compared the demographics of those using full audio-video to those using audio-only.

The likelihood of any telehealth visit in the first 30 days of telehealth expansion was higher for women, those age 65 years and older, self-pay patients, and those with Medicaid and Medicare as primary payers. The likelihood of a telehealth visit was reduced for rural residence and Black or other races. Among all telehealth visits, the likelihood of a full audio-video telehealth visit was reduced for patients who were older, Black, from urban areas, or who were self-pay, Medicaid, or Medicare payer status. Significant disparities exist in telehealth use during the COVID-19 PHE by age, race, residence and payer.

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April 2021
Zaçe, D., Hoxhaj, I., Orfino, A., Viteritti, A. M., Janiri, L., & Di Pietro, M. L. (2021). Interventions to address mental health issues in healthcare workers during infectious disease outbreaks: A systematic review. Journal of psychiatric research, 136, 319–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.02.019

Summary: Considering the importance of evidence on interventions to tackle mental health problems in healthcare workers (HCWs) during pandemics, we conducted a systematic review, aiming to identify and summarize the implemented interventions to deal with mental health issues of HCWs during infectious disease outbreaks and report their effectiveness. Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, CINAHL and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched until October 2nd, 2020. Primary-data articles, describing any implemented interventions and their effectiveness were considered pertinent. Studies were screened according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and subsequently data extraction was performed. Twenty-four articles, referring to SARS, Ebola, Influenza AH1N1 and COVID-19 were included. Interventions addressing mental health issues in HCWs during pandemics/epidemics were grouped into four categories: 1) informational support (training, guidelines, prevention programs), 2) instrumental support (personal protective equipment, protection protocols); 3) organizational support (manpower allocation, working hours, re-organization of facilities/structures, provision of rest areas); 4) emotional and psychological support (psychoeducation and training, mental health support team, peer-support and counselling, therapy, digital platforms and tele-support). These results might be helpful for researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers to develop evidence-based sustainable interventions and guidelines, aiming to prevent or reduce the immediate and long-term effect of pandemics on mental health status of HCWs.

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Teall, A. M., & Mazurek Melnyk, B. (2021). An innovative wellness partner program to support the health and well-being of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: implementation and outcomes. Nursing administration quarterly, 45(2), 169–174. https://doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000457

Summary: Responding to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to exacerbate anxiety, burnout, fatigue, and distress already being experienced by nurses in ever greater numbers. An innovative Wellness Partner Program was developed with an aim to enhance the health and wellbeing of nurses on the front lines during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Nurses across the country opted in to the program, and were paired with advanced practice nursing (APN) graduate students who served as the nurses’ wellness partners. Areas emphasized in the program included (1) personalized support for wellness; (2) prioritizing physical activity, healthy eating, sleep, and stress management; and (3) establishment of strength-based, sustainable solutions to improve health and well-being. Partnerships were implemented for 188 nurses who were coached by 49 APN students; 104 nurses participated for 6 weeks. In the program evaluation, 98% of nurses shared that the wellness support program helped them engage in self-care and wellness, and 94.7% agreed or strongly agreed that The Wellness Partner Program helped them improve their mental and physical health. In the midst of the pandemic, nurses were supported to cope with stress, focus on self-care and wellness goals, and address challenges to their well-being.

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Blake, H., Bermingham, F., Johnson, G., & Tabner, A. (2020). Mitigating the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: a digital learning package. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(9), 2997.

Summary: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) will undoubtedly have psychological impacts for healthcare workers, which could be sustained; frontline workers will be particularly at risk. Actions are needed to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health by protecting and promoting the psychological wellbeing of healthcare workers during and after the outbreak. We developed and evaluated a digital learning package using Agile methodology within the first three weeks of UK outbreak. This e-package includes evidence-based guidance, support and signposting relating to psychological wellbeing for all UK healthcare employees. A three-step rapid development process included public involvement activities (PPIs) (STEP 1), content and technical development with iterative peer review (STEP 2), and delivery and evaluation (STEP 3). The package outlines the actions that team leaders can take to provide psychologically safe spaces for staff, together with guidance on communication and reducing social stigma, peer and family support, signposting others through psychological first aid (PFA), self-care strategies (e.g., rest, work breaks, sleep, shift work, fatigue, healthy lifestyle behaviours), and managing emotions (e.g., moral injury, coping, guilt, grief, fear, anxiety, depression, preventing burnout and psychological trauma). The e-package includes advice from experts in mental wellbeing as well as those with direct pandemic experiences from the frontline, as well as signposting to public mental health guidance. Rapid delivery in STEP 3 was achieved via direct emails through professional networks and social media. Evaluation included assessment of fidelity and implementation qualities. Essential content was identified through PPIs (n = 97) and peer review (n = 10) in STEPS 1 and 2. The most important messages to convey were deemed to be normalisation of psychological responses during a crisis, and encouragement of self-care and help-seeking behaviour. Within 7 days of completion, the package had been accessed 17,633 times, and healthcare providers had confirmed immediate adoption within their health and wellbeing provisions. Evaluation (STEP 3, n = 55) indicated high user satisfaction with content, usability and utility. Assessment of implementation qualities indicated that the package was perceived to be usable, practical, low cost and low burden. Our digital support package on ‘psychological wellbeing for healthcare workers’ is free to use, has been positively evaluated and was highly accessed within one week of release. It is available here: Supplementary Materials. This package was deemed to be appropriate, meaningful and useful for the needs of UK healthcare workers. We recommend provision of this e-package to healthcare workers alongside wider strategies to support their psychological wellbeing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

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May 2021
Vilvens, H. L., Vaughn, L. M., Southworth, H., Denny, S. A., & Gittelman, M. A. (2020). Personalising safe sleep messaging for infant caregivers in the United States. Health & social care in the community, 28(3), 891-902.

Summary: The purpose of our study was to better understand why parents/caregivers might not practice safe sleep behaviours. In autumn 2016, we conducted 'pulse' interviews with 124 parents/caregivers of children under the age of one year at a variety of local community events, festivals and meetings in cities with high infant mortality rates around the Midwestern US state of Ohio. Through an inductive approach, pulse interviews were analysed using thematic coding and an iterative process which followed for further clarification of themes (Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2006, 3, 77; BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2013, 13, 117). The six major themes of underlying reasons why parents/caregivers might not practice safe sleep behaviours that were identified in our coding process included the following: (a) culture and family tradition, (b) knowledge about safe sleep practices, (c) resource access, (d) stressed out parents, (f) lack of support and (g) fear for safety of baby. Using the descriptive findings from the pulse interviews, qualitative themes and key informant validation feedback, we developed four diverse fictional characters or personas of parents/caregivers who are most likely to practice unsafe sleep behaviours. These personas are characteristic scenarios which imitate parent and caregiver experiences with unsafe sleep behaviours. The personas are currently being used to influence development of health promotion and education programs personalised for parents/caregivers of infants less than one year to encourage safe sleep practices.

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Bechtel, K., Gawel, M., Vincent, G. A., & Violano, P. (2020). Impact of statewide safe sleep legislation on hospital practices and rates of sudden unexpected infant deaths. Injury epidemiology, 7(1), 1-7.

Summary: Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) is the leading cause of death in the post-neonatal period in the United States. In 2015, Connecticut (CT) passed legislation to reduce the number of SUIDs from hazardous sleep environments requiring birthing hospitals/centers provide anticipatory guidance on safe sleep to newborn caregivers before discharge. Objective: To understand the barriers and facilitators for compliance with the safe sleep legislation by birthing hospitals and to determine the effect of this legislation on SUIDs associated with unsafe sleep environments. Methods: We surveyed the directors and/or educators of the 27 birthing hospitals & one birthing center in CT, about the following: 1) methods of anticipatory guidance given to parents at newborn hospital discharge; 2) knowledge about the legislation; and 3) barriers and facilitators to complying with the law. We used a voluntary online, anonymous survey. In addition, we evaluated the proportion of SUID cases presented at the CT Child Fatality Review Panel as a result of unsafe sleep environments before (2011–2015) and after implementation of the legislation (2016–2018). Chi-Square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to evaluate the proportion of deaths due to Positional Asphyxia/Accident occurring before and after legislation implementation. Results: All 27 birthing hospitals and the one birthing center in CT responded to the request for the method of anticipatory guidance provided to caregivers. All hospitals reported providing anticipatory guidance; the birthing center did not provide any anticipatory guidance. The materials provided by 26/27 (96%) of hospitals was consistent with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Guidelines. There was no significant change in rates of SUID in CT before (58.86/100,000) and after (55.92/100,000) the passage of the legislation (p = 0.78). However, more infants died from positional asphyxia after (20, 27.0%) than before the enactment of the law

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Salm Ward, T. C., McPherson, J., & Kogan, S. M. (2021). Feasibility and acceptability of a tailored infant safe sleep coaching intervention for African American families. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(8), 4133.

Summary: Background: Approximately 3600 infants die suddenly and unexpectedly annually in the United States. Research suggests limitations of current behavioral interventions to reduce the risk for sleep-related deaths among African American families living in under-resourced neighborhoods. Guided by the theory of planned behavior and the socio-ecological model, the My Baby’s Sleep (MBS) intervention intends to reduce the risk for sleep-related infant deaths while addressing complex needs of African American families living in under-resourced neighborhoods. Objective: To assess feasibility and acceptability of MBS, a 7-month intervention that includes four home visits and multiple check-ins via phone and text message. Methods: This was a single-arm feasibility and acceptability study with quantitative and qualitive measures. African American families were recruited from community agencies that served an under-resourced metropolitan area. Results: Eight families (eight mothers, nine co-caregivers) completed the intervention. Families reported high acceptability of MBS content, process, and format, as evidenced by qualitative data and mean evaluation scores. Conclusion: MBS is feasible and acceptable among African American families living in under-resourced neighborhoods. These results suggest further investigation of MBS intervention efficacy in a large-scale randomized controlled trial.

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July 2021
Epstein, M., Söderström, M., Jirwe, M., Tucker, P., & Dahlgren, A. (2020). Sleep and fatigue in newly graduated nurses—Experiences and strategies for handling shiftwork. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(1-2), 184-194.

Aims and objectives: To explore newly graduated nurses' strategies for, and experiences of, sleep problems and fatigue when starting shiftwork. A more comprehensive insight into nurses' strategies, sleep problems, fatigue experiences and contributing factors is needed to understand what support should be provided.

Background: For graduate nurses, the first years of practice are often stressful, with many reporting high levels of burnout symptoms. Usually, starting working as a nurse also means an introduction to shiftwork, which is related to sleep problems. Sleep problems may impair stress management and, at the same time, stress may cause sleep problems. Previously, sleep problems and fatigue have been associated with burnout, poor health and increased accident risk.

Design and Methods:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses (N = 11) from four different Swedish hospitals, and qualitative inductive content analysis was used. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Stockholm. The COREQ checklist was followed.

Results: Many nurses lacked effective strategies for managing sleep and fatigue in relation to shiftwork. Various strategies were used, of which some might interfere with factors regulating and promoting sleep such as the homeostatic drive. Sleep problems were common during quick returns, often due to difficulties unwinding before sleep, and high workloads exacerbated the problems. The described consequences of fatigue in a clinical work context indicated impaired executive and nonexecutive cognitive function.

Conclusion: The findings indicate that supporting strategies and behaviours for sleep and fatigue in an intervention for newly graduated nurses starting shiftwork may be of importance to improve well-being among nurses and increase patient safety. Relevance to clinical practice: This study highlights the importance of addressing sleep and fatigue issues in nursing education and work introduction programmes to increase patient safety and improve well-being among nurses.

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Brewer, J. A., Ruf, A., Beccia, A. L., Essien, G. I., Finn, L. M., Lutterveld, R. V., & Mason, A. E. (2018). Can mindfulness address maladaptive eating behaviors? Why traditional diet plans fail and how new mechanistic insights may lead to novel interventions. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1418.

Summary: Emotional and other maladaptive eating behaviors develop in response to a diversity of triggers, from psychological stress to the endless external cues in our modern food environment. While the standard approach to food- and weight-related concerns has been weight-loss through dietary restriction, these interventions have produced little long-term benefit, and may be counterproductive. A growing understanding of the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms that underpin habit formation may explain why this approach has largely failed, and pave the way for a new generation of nonpharmacologic interventions. Here, we first review how modern food environments interact with human biology to promote reward-related eating through associative learning, i.e., operant conditioning. We also review how operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement) cultivates habit-based reward-related eating, and how current diet paradigms may not directly target such eating. Further, we describe how mindfulness training that targets reward-based learning may constitute an appropriate intervention to rewire the learning process around eating. We conclude with examples that illustrate how teaching patients to tap into and act on intrinsic (e.g., enjoying healthy eating, not overeating, and self-compassion) rather than extrinsic reward mechanisms (e.g., weighing oneself), is a promising new direction in improving individuals’ relationship with food.

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Dong, T. A., Sandesara, P. B., Dhindsa, D. S., Mehta, A., Arneson, L. C., Dollar, A. L., ... & Sperling, L. S. (2020). Intermittent fasting: a heart healthy dietary pattern?. The American journal of medicine, 133(8), 901-907.

Summary: Dietary patterns, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet, have been shown to improve cardiac health. Intermittent fasting is another type of popular dietary pattern that is based on timed periods of fasting. Two different regimens are alternative day fasting and time restricted eating. Although there are no large, randomized control trials examining the relationship between intermittent fasting and cardiovascular outcomes, current human studies that suggest this diet could reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease with improvement in weight control, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Intermittent fasting may exert its effects through multiple pathways, including reducing oxidative stress, optimization of circadian rhythms, and ketogenesis. This review evaluates current literature regarding the potential cardiovascular benefits of intermittent fasting and proposes directions for future research.

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August 2021
Stellar, J. J., Hasbani, N. R., Kulik, L. A., Shelley, S. S., Quigley, S., Wypij, D., & Curley, M. A. (2020). Medical Device–Related Pressure Injuries in Infants and Children. Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 47(5), 459-469

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe medical device–related pressure injuries (MDRPIs) in hospitalized pediatric patients.

Design: A prospective, descriptive study.

Sample/Subjects and Setting: The sample comprised 625 patients cared for in 8 US pediatric hospitals. Participants were aged preterm to 21 years, on bed rest for at least 24 hours, and had a medical device in place.

Methods: Two nursing teams, blinded to the other’s assessments, worked in tandem to assess pressure injury risk, type of medical devices in use, and preventive interventions for each medical device. They also identified the presence, location, and stage of MDRPI. Subjects were observed up to 8 times over 4 weeks, or until discharge, whichever occurred first.

Reslults: Of 625 enrolled patients, 42 (7%) developed 1 or more MDRPIs. Two-thirds of patients with MDRPIs were younger than 8 years. Patients experiencing MDRPIs had higher acuity scores on hospital admission, were more frequently cognitively and/or functionally impaired, or were extreme in body mass index. Respiratory devices caused the most injuries (6.19/1000 device-days), followed by immobilizers (2.40/1000 device-days), gastric tubes (2.24/1000 device-days), and external monitoring devices (1.77/1000 device-days). Of the 6336 devices in place, 36% did not have an MDRPI preventive intervention in place. Clinical variables contributing to MDRPI development included intensive care unit care (odds ratio [OR] 8.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-43.6), use of neuromuscular blockade (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.7-7.8), and inotropic/vasopressor medications (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.3). Multivariable analysis indicated that Braden QD scores alone predicted MDRPI development.

Conclusion: Medical devices are common in hospitalized infants and children and these medical devices place patients at risk for MDRPI.

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Barakat-Johnson, M., Lai, M., Wand, T., Li, M., White, K., & Coyer, F. (2019). The incidence and prevalence of medical device-related pressure ulcers in intensive care: a systematic review. Journal of wound care, 28(8), 512-521.

The objective of this review was to synthesize the literature and evaluate the incidence, prevalence and severity of medical device-related pressure injuries in adult intensive care patients.

Research methodology
Electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for publications between 2000 and 2017. Outcome measures included cumulative incidence or incidence rate, point prevalence or period prevalence as a primary outcome and the severity and location of the pressure injury as secondary outcome measures. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias using a nine-item checklist for prevalence studies. The heterogeneity was evaluated using 12 statistic.

Thirteen studies were included in this review. Prevalence was reported more frequently than incidence. Pooled data demonstrated a high variation in the incidence and prevalence rates ranging from 0.9% to 41.2% in incidence and 1.4% to 121% in prevalence. Heterogeneity was high. Mucosal pressure injuries were the most common stage reported in the incidence studies whereas stage 2 followed by stage 1 were most commonly reported in the prevalence studies. In the incidence studies, the most common location was the ear and in the prevalence studies it was the nose.

While medical device-related pressure injuries are common in intensive care patients, it is an understudied area. Inconsistency in the staging of medical device-related pressure injuries, along with variations in data collection methods, study design and reporting affect the reported incidence and prevalence rates. Standardisation of data reporting and collection method is essential for pooling of future studies.

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Brophy, S., Moore, Z., Patton, D., Tom, O., & Avsar, P. (2021). What is the incidence of medical device-related pressure injuries in adults within the acute hospital setting? A systematic review. Journal of Tissue Viability.

Summary: Medical devices provide effective therapeutic care for patients. However, medical device-related pressure injuries (MDRPI) are caused by prolonged pressure or shear from a medical device on any location on the body, including mucosal cavities. The primary outcome of this quantitative systematic review was to identify the incidence of MDRPIs in adults within the acute hospital setting. Secondary outcomes include grading, anatomical location and devices that caused such injuries. Electronic databases (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE, EBSCO Host, Health Business Elite Web of Science, PsychINFO, Google Scholar, and Research Gate) were searched for all potential primary studies between November 2019–January 2020. Studies were refined to the English language only, had no time limit from publication, and had to include participants over the age of 18 years with an MDRPI in the acute hospital setting and 720 potential primary studies were identified. Fourteen articles were identified that matched the predefined criteria and were included in the review. All included studies were critically appraised using the evidence-based librarianship critical appraisal tool and data analysis and narrative synthesis were completed. The incidence of MDRPIs in adults within the acute care setting was 28.1% (SD: 29.1%, min: 1.14%, max: 100%). 71.3% of studies documented anatomical locations of MDRPIs, 36.2% included grading of MDRIs, and 71.4% studies documented the offending medical devices. The mean quality appraisal percentage of all included studies was 76.67% (SD: 4.61%; min: 66.6%, max: 83.3%). Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, the review has identified that MDRPIs are prevalent among individuals cared for within the acute hospital setting. Thus, given the morbidity associated with these wounds, it is important to develop strategies to reduce the scope of this problem.

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Black, J. M., & Kalowes, P. (2016). Medical device-related pressure ulcers. Chronic Wound Care Management and Research, 3, 91-99

Summary: Pressure ulcers from medical devices are common and can cause significant morbidity in patients of all ages. These pressure ulcers appear in the shape of the device and are most often found from the use of oxygen delivery devices. A hospital program designed to reduce the number of pressure ulcers from medical devices was successful. The program involved the development of a team that focused on skin, the results were then published for the staff to track their performance, and it was found that using foam dressings helped reduce the pressure from the device. The incidence of ulcers from medical devices has remained at zero at this hospital since this program was implemented.

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September 2021
Stafford, A. M., Nagy, G., Gonzalez-Guarda, R., & Draucker, C. B. (2020). The Influence of Peer Relationships on Latina Adolescents' Experiences with Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 55, 250-257.

Purpose: Previous research has demonstrated that peers may play an integral role in the development of depressive symptoms among Latina adolescents; however, little is known about the function of peers in the ongoing management of depressive symptoms for Latina adolescents. The purpose of this study was to describe how peers influence Latina adolescents' experiences with the onset and ongoing management of depressive symptoms.

Design and methods: Qualitative descriptive methods were used in conducting semi-structured interviews with twenty-five young Latinas (ages 13–20) who had a history of depressive symptoms during adolescence. Participants were asked to describe their experiences with depressive symptoms and how they interacted with others in relation to their depressive symptoms. Thematic analysis methods were used to identify common themes in how peers influenced Latina adolescents' experiences with depressive symptoms.

Results: Latina adolescents experienced tensions with peers in the development, disclosure, and self-management of depressive symptoms. Peers were: 1) allies and bullies;
2) confidants and betrayers; and
3) up-lifters and downers.

Conclusions: Peer relationships can be a source of risk and resiliency for Latina adolescents throughout the process of experiencing depressive symptoms.

Practice implications: Interventions preventing or treating depression among Latina adolescents should capitalize on the strengths of peer relationships, while recognizing that peers may also contribute to risk.

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Williams, J. R., Gonzalez-Guarda, R. M., Halstead, V., Martinez, J., & Joseph, L. (2020). Disclosing gender-based violence during health care visits: A patient-centered approach. Journal of interpersonal violence, 35(23-24), 5552-5573.

Summary: The purpose of this study was to better understand victims’ perspectives regarding decisions to disclose gender-based violence, namely, intimate partner violence (IPV) and human trafficking, to health care providers and what outcomes matter to them when discussing these issues with their provider. Twenty-five participants from racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds were recruited from a family justice center located in the southeastern United States. Two fifths had experienced human trafficking, and the remaining had experienced IPV. Upon obtaining informed consent, semi structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine interview data. Five primary themes emerged. Three themes focused on factors that may facilitate or impede disclosure: patient–provider connectedness, children, and social support. The fourth theme was related to ambiguity in the role of the health care system in addressing gender-based violence. The final theme focused on outcomes participants hope to achieve when discussing their experiences with health care providers. Similar themes emerged from both researcIPV and human trafficking victims; however, victims of human trafficking were more fearful of judgment and had a stronger desire to keep experiences private. Cultural factors also played an important role in decisions around disclosure and may interact with the general disparities racial/ethnic minority groups face within the health care system. Recognizing factors that influence patient engagement with the health care system as it relates to gender-based violence is critical. The health care system can respond to gender-based violence and its associated comorbidities in numerous ways and interventions must be driven by the patient’s goals and desired outcomes of disclosure. These interventions may be better served by taking patient-centered factors into account and viewing the effectiveness of intervention programs through a behavioral, patient-centered lens.

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Scott, J., Cousin, L., Woo, J., Gonzalez-Guarda, R., & Simmons, L. A. (2020). Equity in Genomics: A Brief Report on Cardiovascular Health Disparities in African American Adults. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing

Summary: African Americans are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than all other populations in the United States. Although technological advances have supported rapid growth in applying genetics/genomics to address CVD, most research has been conducted among European Americans. The lack of African American representation in genomic samples has limited progress in equitably applying precision medicine tools, which will widen CVD disparities if not remedied. Purpose: This report summarizes the genetic/genomic advances that inform precision health and the implications for cardiovascular disparities in African American adults. We provide nurse scientists recommendations for becoming leaders in developing precision health tools that promote population health equity. Conclusions: Genomics will continue to drive advances in CVD prevention and management, and equitable progress is imperative. Nursing should leverage the public's trust and its widespread presence in clinical and community settings to prevent the worsening of CVD disparities among African Americans.

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Gonzalez-Guarda, R. M., Williams, J., Lorenzo, D., & Carrington, C. (2021). Desired characteristics of HIV testing and counseling among diverse survivors of intimate partner violence receiving social services. Health & Social Work, 46(2), 93-101.

Summary: Despite recent calls to integrate HIV testing into social services addressing intimate partner violence (IPV), few studies have reported on survivors’ perspectives regarding the desired characteristics of this integration. The purpose of this study was to describe desired characteristics of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing services from a survivor’s perspective. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken to describe the perspectives of IPV survivors who may or may not have accessed this service. Four focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of English and Spanish speakers (N ¼ 25) who sought services through a family justice center and associated shelters. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Three themes were identified, including (1) peace of mind; (2) interacting stigmas and traumas; and (3) making testing easy, comfortable, and tailored. The findings of this study have the potential to influence survivor-centered practices

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October 2021
Mayer, D. K., & Alfano, C. M. (2019). Personalized Risk-Stratified Cancer Follow-Up Care: Its Potential for Healthier Survivors, Happier Clinicians, and Lower Costs. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 111(5), 442–448. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy232

The growth in the number of cancer survivors in the face of projected health-care workforce shortages will challenge the US health-care system in delivering follow-up care. New methods of delivering follow-up care are needed that address the ongoing needs of survivors without overwhelming already overflowing oncology clinics or shuttling all follow up patients to primary care providers. One potential solution, proposed for over a decade, lies in adopting a personalized approach to care in which survivors are triaged or risk-stratified to distinct care pathways based on the complexity of their needs and the types of providers their care requires. Although other approaches may emerge, we advocate for development, testing, and implementation of a risk-stratified approach as a means to address this problem. This commentary reviews what is needed to shift to a risk-stratified approach in delivering survivorship care in the United States.

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Post, K.E., Berry, D., Shindul-Rothschild, J., Flanagan, J., (2021). Patient Engagement in Breast Cancer Survivorship Care. Cancer Nursing, 44(5), E296-E302.

Summary: Patient engagement (PE) is a key factor for early-stage breast cancer survivors during survivorship, yet little is known about what factors may contribute to PE. Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe the relationship between sociodemographic factors, survivorship variables, and PE and explore how variations in these variables might contribute to PE in breast cancer survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional, web-based self-report national survey was conducted to assess sociodemographic factors and survivorship variables: health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured by 7-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General, fear of cancer recurrence, cancer health literacy, and 2 measures of PE (Patient Activation and Knowing Participation in Change) in breast cancer survivors. One open-ended question assessed additional survivorship concerns. Data were analyzed via bivariate associations and backward linear regression modeling in SPSS. Results: The sample (N = 303), equally dispersed across the United States, was predominantly middle-aged (mean, 50.70 [SD, 14.01]), white, non-Hispanic women. Knowing Participation in Change and Patient Activation regression models indicate HRQOL was significantly associated with PE (P = .001), whereas findings related to fear of cancer recurrence lacked significance. In the Knowing Participation in Change regression model, HRQOL, social support, and level of education were all significantly associated with PE (P = .001). Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors with higher HRQOL, greater social support, and higher levels of education were more likely to have higher levels of PE.

Implications for Practice: Findings may provide insight as to which survivors may be ready to engage in SC and those who may need more specific tailoring of resources and support.

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Alfano, C. M., Mayer, D. K., Bhatia, S., Maher, J., Scott, J. M., Nekhlyudov, L., Merrill, J. K., & Henderson, T. O. (2019). Implementing personalized pathways for cancer follow-up care in the United States: Proceedings from an American Cancer Society-American Society of Clinical Oncology summit. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 69(3), 234–247. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21558

Summary: A new approach to cancer follow-up care is necessary to meet the needs of cancer survivors while dealing with increasing volume and provider shortages, knowledge gaps, and costs to both health care systems and patients. An approach that triages patients to personalized follow-up care pathways, depending on the type(s) and level(s) of resources needed for patients’ long-term care, is in use in the United Kingdom and other countries and has been shown to meet patients’ needs, more efficiently use the health care system, and reduce costs. Recognizing that testing and implementing a similar personalized approach to cancer follow-up care in the United States will require a multipronged strategy, the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a summit in January 2018 to identify the needed steps to move this work from concept to implementation. The summit identified 4 key strategies going forward: 1) developing a candidate model (or models) of care delivery; 2) building the case for implementation by conducting studies modeling the effects of personalized pathways of follow-up care on patient outcomes, workforce and health care resources, and utilization and costs; 3) creating consensus-based guidelines to guide the delivery of personalized care pathways; and 4) identifying and filling research gaps to develop and implement needed care changes. While these national strategies are pursued, oncology and primary care providers can lay the groundwork for implementation by assessing their patients’ risk of recurrence and the chronic and late effects of cancer as well as other health care needs and resources available for care and by considering triaging patients accordingly, referring patients to appropriate specialized survivorship clinics as these are developed, helping to support patients who are capable of self-managing their health, setting expectations with patients from diagnosis onward for the need for follow-up in primary care and/or a survivorship clinic, and improving coordination of care between oncology and primary care.

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De Rooij, B. H., Park, E. R., Perez, G. K., Rabin, J., Quain, K. M., Dizon, D. S., Post, K. E., Chinn, G. M., McDonough, A. L., Jimenez, R. B., van de Poll-Franse, L. V., & Peppercorn, J. (2018). Cluster Analysis Demonstrates the Need to Individualize Care for Cancer Survivors. The oncologist, 23(12), 1474–1481. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2017-0558

Summary: In efforts to inform clinical screening and development of survivorship care services, we sought to characterize patterns of health care needs among cancer survivors by (a) identifying and characterizing subgroups based on self-reported health care needs and (b) assessing sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with these subgroups. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey among patients presenting for routine follow-up care for early-stage cancer at our academic medical center. Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of survivors based on survivorship care needs within seven domains. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with these clusters. Results. Among 292 respondents, the highest unmet needs were related to the domains of side effects (53%), self-care (51%), and emotional coping (43%). Our analysis identified four clusters of survivors: (a) low needs (n 5 123, 42%), (b) mainly physical needs (n 5 46, 16%), (c) mainly psychological needs (n 5 57, 20%), and (d) both physical and psycho[1]logical needs (n 5 66, 23%). Compared with cluster 1, those in clusters 2, 3, and 4 were younger (p < .03), those in clusters 3 and 4 had higher levels of psychological distress (p < .05), and those in clusters 2 and 4 reported higher levels of fatigue (p < .05). Conclusion. Unmet needs among cancer survivors are prevalent; however, a substantial group of survivors report low or no health care needs. The wide variation in health care needs among cancer survivors suggests a need to screen all patients, followed by tailored interventions in clinical care delivery and research.

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November 2021
Traudt, T., Liaschenko, J., & Peden-McAlpine, C. (2016). Moral agency, moral imagination, and moral community: antidotes to moral distress. J Clin Ethics, 27(3), 201-213.

Summary: Moral distress has been covered extensively in the nursing literature and increasingly in the literature of other health professions. Cases that cause nurses’ moral distress that are mentioned most frequently are those concerned with prolonging the dying process. Given the standard of aggressive treatment that is typical in intensive care units (ICUs), much of the existing moral distress research focuses on the experiences of critical care nurses. However, moral distress does not automatically occur in all end-of-life circumstances, nor does every critical care nurse suffer its damaging effects. What are the practices of these nurses? What specifically do they do to navigate around or through the distressing situations? The nursing literature is lacking an answer to these questions. This article reports a study that used narrative analysis to explore the reported practices of experienced critical care nurses who are skilled at and comfortable working with families and physicians regarding the withdrawal of aggressive treatment. A major finding was that these nurses did not report experiencing the damaging effects of moral distress as described in the nursing literature. The verbal communication and stated practices relevant to this finding are organized under three major themes: (1) moral agency, (2) moral imagination, and (3) moral community. Further, a total of eight subthemes are identified. The practices that constitute these themes and subthemes are further detailed and discussed in this article. Understanding these practices can help mitigate critical care nurses’ moral distress

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Bong, H.E. (2019). Understanding moral distress: How to decrease turnover rates of new graduate pediatric nurses. Pediatric Nursing, 45(3), 109-114.

Summary: For the past 10 years, the United States has been experiencing a critical shortage of registered nurses (RNs), and data suggest this trend will continue through 2025. Compensation for RN burnout cannot be achieved by simply hiring new nurses because the rate of graduation is less than the rate of need. During this period of critical shortage, federal healthcare reforms, most notably the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010, have placed additional demands on physicians and nurses. These trends have led to increased RN dissatisfaction, moral distress, and subsequent turnover. Literature reviews, case studies, and methodological pieces regarding moral distress in new graduate pediatric nurses were studied, and 34 articles were analyzed; articles before 2010 were excluded unless considered a sentinel piece. Results show new graduate pediatric RNs experience moral distress as they transition from academia to the professional setting, which leads to rates of new graduate RN turnover that outpace nurses of all other tenure. With the goal of decreasing RN turnover, this article briefly examines factors that contribute to moral distress in new graduate pediatric nurses and explores unit-based interventions to reduce levels of moral distress. Interventions found to decrease moral distress include early detection of moral distress, fostering feelings of nurse engagement, participation in ethics education, promotion of mindfulness, and the creation of pediatric palliative care teams within hospital units.

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Morley, G., Field, R., Horsburgh, C. C., & Burchill, C. (2021). Interventions to Mitigate Moral Distress: A Systematic Review of the Literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 103984.

Background: Moral distress is a pervasive phenomenon that can negatively impact healthcare professionals and has been well studied in nursing populations. Much of the evidence suggests that it is associated with intention to leave high acuity areas and the profession. Despite the increasing amounts of research to explore the causes and effects of moral distress, there is limited research on interventions that mitigate the negative effects of moral distress.

Objectives: The aims of this systematic review were to: (a) identify and examine interventions developed to address moral distress experienced by health care professionals (b) examine the quality of the research methods and (c) report on the efficacy of these interventions.

Design: We conducted a systematic review of interventional studies developed to mitigate moral distress. Data Source: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for relevant studies (July 2019- September 2019). Additional bioethics databases and reference lists were also hand-searched.

Review methods: The first author reviewed all retrieved titles and abstracts with a low tolerance for borderline papers based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and those papers were reviewed and discussed by all authors to determine inclusion. Quality appraisal was conducted on the included studies using narrative synthesis to compare the findings. Data were extracted and compared by all authors and then reviewed by the first author for consistency.

Results: Sixteen papers were included for full text review and the following interventions identified: educational interventions of varying length and breadth; facilitated discussions ranging from 30 to 60 minutes; specialist consultation services; an intervention bundle; multidisciplinary rounds; self-reflection and narrative writing. Researchers reported statistically significant reductions in moral distress using pre and post surveys, including one mixed methods program evaluation (n = 7). The qualitative program evaluation provided participant quotations to suggest their program was beneficial. There were no statistically significant findings in the other studies (n = 8). All studies had limitations in design and methodology presenting significant threats to validity.

Conclusion: Designing rigorous research studies that measure the impact of interventions aimed at mitigating moral distress continues to be challenging. The primary reason being that moral distress is a subjective ethical phenomenon with a number of different causes and effects. This calls for interventions that are flexible and sensitive to individual’s needs. To build an evidence-base, interventions should also be measurable and research methods need to be scientifically rigorous. To achieve rigor and innovation, researchers should clearly justify their methodological choices.

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December 2021
Maglalang, D. D., Sorensen, G., Hopcia, K., Hashimoto, D. M., Katigbak, C., Pandey, S., ... & Sabbath, E. L. (2021). Job and family demands and burnout among healthcare workers: The moderating role of workplace flexibility. SSM-Population Health, 14, 100802.

Burnout is a growing problem among healthcare workers. Whereas there are numerous predictors of burnout, this article explores the compounding effects of job and family demands among nurses and Patient Care Associates (PCA). This study used the 2018 survey data of the Boston Hospital Health Workers Study (BHWHS) to assess the relationship of job and family demands, workplace flexibility, and burnout (N =874). In addition, it aimed to evaluate the moderating effect of workplace flexibility and job and family demands on burnout. Results of the study demonstrate that active and high strained healthcare workers are associated with higher odds of experiencing burnout as well as workers who reported perceived low workplace flexibility. In addition, work-place flexibility is associated with reduced odds of experiencing burnout. Workplace flexibility moderated the relationship of childless married healthcare workers and burnout. The study shows that workplace flexibility plays a critical role in potentially reducing odds of burnout in the healthcare worker population. Assessing the perception and accessibility to workplace flexibility among workers is imperative to improve worker well-being and the quality of care provided to patients especially the current effects to worker’s health during a pandemic.

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Gribben, L., & Semple, C. J. (2021). Factors contributing to burnout and work-life balance in adult oncology nursing: an integrative review. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 50, 101887.

Purpose: Occupational stress and burnout are highlighted as the most prevalent workplace issues for adult oncology nurses. With today’s global nursing workforce shortage; coupled with oncology being an inherently challenging and complex speciality, this clearly indicates the need to understand factors that contribute to burnout in adult oncology nurses and improve work-life balance. The aim of this integrative review is to syn[1]thesis the evidence on burnout and work-life balance for adult oncology nurses. Method: A systematic search of four databases (CINAHL, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and Scopus), identified 17 quantitative and three mixed-method studies. Studies were critically appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Following data extraction, a qualitative evidence synthesis utilising an inductive approach was adopted to better understand influential factors, generating analytical themes. Results: One study had a specific focus on what ameliorates work-life balance for oncology nurses; depicting an area that warrants further study. All studies reported on burnout, of which six analytical themes were further categorised into two broad themes, namely: (1) ‘Inability to thrive’: struggling with workplace burnout due to organisational challenges and (2) ‘Personal perspectives influencing burnout’, for adult oncology nurses. Burnout was influenced by multiple oncology-specific factors due to quantitative workload demands and disease acuity. Workplace culture, shift in additional hours being worked remotely and personal characteristics of the nurse, also influenced susceptibility for the development of burnout in oncology nurses. Conclusion: Confronting burnout and promoting wellness are the shared responsibility of both individual adult oncology nurses and their organisations to build resilience and help sustain and build workforce capacity.

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Gabriel, K. P., & Aguinis, H. (2021). How to prevent and combat employee burnout and create healthier workplaces during crises and beyond. Business Horizons.

Burnout results from chronic work-related stress. People who are burned out are emotionally drained and feel negative and detached from work, which leads to decreased performance, inhibited creativity and innovation, work-place accidents, absenteeism, and physical and mental illnesses. Burnout is wide-spread, pernicious, and costly to human life, firm profits, and society especially during a global crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic but also during a broader set of pan-global crises yet to come. Fostering healthier workplaces is a necessity at any time, but particularly during a crisis that has intensified job demands and drained job resources. Based on a review of the evidence, we provide five recommendations and implementation guidelines that can help organizations prevent and combat burnout: (1) provide stress management interventions, (2) allow employees to be active crafters of their work, (3) cultivate and encourage social support, (4) engage employees in decision-making, and (5) implement high-quality performance management. Overall, our evidence-based recommendations, together with the implementation guidelines we provide, will help business leaders promote and create sustainable wellness at work during crises and beyond

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